Timeline of the 17th century

Timeline of major events in the 17th century 

1606 Jamestown, Virginia, established-first permanent English colony on American mainland. Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, saves life of John Smith.

1609 Johannes Kepler publishes his Laws of Planetary Motion which explained the movement of planets around the sun.

1610 Galileo Galilei sees the moons of Jupiter through his telescope. Galileo also showed the Copernican system in which the planets circle the sun was correct.

1611 King James Version of the Bible published in England.

1616 William Shakespeare dies.

1618 Start of the Thirty Years’ War – Protestants revolt against Catholic oppression; Denmark, Sweden, and France invade Germany in later phases of war. Johannes Kepler proposes last of three laws of planetary motion.

1619 The first African slaves are brought to Jamestown.
(Slavery is made legal in 1650.)

1620 Pilgrims from England arrive at Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the Mayflower.

1626 Peter Minuit buys Manhattan island for the Dutch from Man-a-hat-a Indians for goods worth $24. The island is renamed New Amsterdam.

1630 Boston is founded by Massachusetts colonists led by John Winthrop.

1631 The Taj Mahal is built in India (1631 – 1653)

1633 The Spanish Inquisition forces Galileo Galilei to recant his belief in Copernican theory.

1642 English Civil War. Cavaliers, supporters of Charles I, against Roundheads, parliamentary forces. Oliver Cromwell defeats Royalists (1646). Parliament demands reforms. Charles I offers concessions, brought to trial (1648), beheaded (1649). Cromwell becomes Lord Protector (1653). Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn paints his Night Watch.

1644 End of Ming Dynasty in China-Manchus come to power. René Descartes’s Principles of Philosophy.

1648 End of the Thirty Years’ War. German population about half of what it was in 1618 because of war and pestilence.

1658 Oliver Cromwell dies; son Richard resigns and Puritan government collapses.

1660 English Parliament calls for the restoration of the monarchy; invites Charles II to return from France.

1661 Charles II is crowned King of England. Louis XIV begins personal rule as absolute monarch; starts to build Versailles.

1664 Isaac Newton’s experiments with gravity. The English seize New Amsterdam from the Dutch. The city is renamed New York.

1665 Great Plague in London kills 75,000.

1699 French settlers move into Mississippi and Louisiana.

Types of Servants

Ever wondered what it would have been like to be a domestic?  To slave over your mistress or master in the hopes of earning a few measly pounds a year?  You would have been one among many, that’s for sure.  Nearly every household who could afford the expense employed servants.  Their number was a symbol of social standing with the aristocracy employing as many as fifty while those of the middle class might employ three or four, or as was often the case, only one, most likely a maid of all work.

The Domestic Working Class

In 1806 the number of domestics numbered around 910,000, only 110, 000 of them men.  The first official census was enumerated in 1801, putting us a little off the mark for the 18th century, but the number of total population figures in at approximately 8,892,536 including Wales and England.   Greater London during that time had a population of about 900,000.

From estimates dated 1775 to 1801, servants accounted for anywhere between 1 in 10 persons to 1 in every 4.5.  But enough about the math!  The population was growing a great deal during the mid to latter part of the 18th century and suffice it to say, domestics accounted for a large class of workers.  Their living quarters were modest, their wages low, and the hours miserably long.  This especially applied to females because they filled positions modern-day women are familiar with today: unskilled house work.  Men were more commonly involved in cultivating and protecting land, husbandry, and attending to luxuries–that is to say, work that required apprenticeship.  Surprise, surprise, right?Curiously, there was a tax instituted in 1776, paid by employers, of one guinea per male servant (the tax slightly higher for bachelors, slightly lower from families).  The result?  Men were effectively prohibited from doing housework.

Henry Robert Morland – late 18th century

To launder, sew, empty chamber pots, dust, haul water for baths, light fires, and shop–all these duties fell within the realm of women’s work.  Although household positions came with wages, the domestic burden lay upon the female.  Girls, often aged 13-14 years old, sometimes as young as eleven, were employed as the lowest order of servants: maids.  A high turnover rate existed due to innumberable grievances and disputes between domestics and masters, but women could expect to continue working until marriage, typically around the age of 24 or later.  Married women, and even more seldomly, married couples were employed in households.  Many masters also imposed a strict dictate of celibacy, banning boyfriends and any others who might be interested in their female staff.  This rule, however, was broken by masters themselves.

Female servants were deemed sexually available to males of the house: masters, their sons, guests, and other servants.  These girls, often arriving in London in hordes, were typically farmer’s daugthers, more often than not from northern England.  They were naive, quite young, and desperate for wages.  And lucky for them, there were endless ways to offend their employers, including inciting the envy of a wife or mistress.

Domestic Servants and Abuse

While domestics were responsible for their fair share of thievery and dishonety, they lived at the mercy of their masters.  Pregnancy was often cause for immediate dismissal.  Since gaining employment in another house required a character reference, unresolved disputes resulted in much misery.  Those who were fired might face months of unemployment.    Worse yet, while those fired were owed wages up to date of dismissal, a servant who quit was owed nothing.

It was an untenable situation for many as their financial outlook was already poor.  Wages could be deducted for breaking a household item, making a mistake, forgoing church, or other offenses such as drunkenness.  Grounds for dismissal were many: insubordiance, dishonesty, theft (guilty or suspected), or merely for the master’s convenience when he and his household traveled abroad.

A Little Frosting on that Cake?

All was not awful, though, as perks did exist.  Housekeepers received the leftovers from meals.  Ladies maids enjoyed the castoffs from their mistresses.  Tips, or vails, were a happy occassion.  Upon departure of guests, domestics would line up in the foyer, eagerly waiting their 1 shilling.  These vails sometimes accounted for half their yearly income, which was rather a lot when most maids rarely made over £10, but the occurrence of these perks dwindled by the end of the century.  A fortunate domestic might be included in an inheritance but this windfall was very rare.  As such, domestics were always on the lookout for the slightest economic opportunity, whether through fair means or foul.  Another popular way to supplement income?  Selling used tea leaves.

While domestics were supplied with room and board, allowances also padded income.  These included a predetermined allotment of tea, clothes, and let’s not forget, the benefits of class.   A strict, social hierarchy, much like the ones their employers ascribed to, existed among domestics.  Working for a lord was better than working for a merchant, and even within a household there were superiors and subordinates.  The upper eschelons of domestics enjoyed better wages, sat at a serperate dining table than their lower peers, and experienced greater privileges than their lower ordered peers.

Hierarchy of Domestic Servants

Upper Order

Companions: addressed as “Mrs” for the sake of courtesy, these women accompanied their mistresses on whatever excursions the day might require.  They were like 24 hour on-call friends.  Shopping, playing cards, aiding their mistresses’ comfort–companions came from genteel upbringings and possessed a “polite education”, were versed in music, languange, conversation and the arts.

Waiting Women & Ladies Maids:  also known as abigails, a ladies maid was preferably French, but more commonly, English.  She was responsible for dressing her mistress, caring for her mistress’ clothes, carrying messages, encouraging or discourings her lovers, and accompanying her mistress on errands.

 

Housekeepers:  Of a certain age, housekeepers were typically mature and had either ran her own household or possessed extensive experience in household affairs.  She worked alongside a house steward (a male domestic), buying provisions, dispensing funds as needed, and keeping household accounts.  In addition, she was responsible for managing the lower order servants (the maids).  One woman would often perform this position in conjunction with another.  The most common combination was housekeeper and cook, or housekeeper and ladies maid.  Paid: £10-20 by the late 1700’s.

Cook:  Performed the same duties as the man cook, her male counterpart, but was considered his inferior.  Paid: £7-15.

Lower Order

Chambermaids:  Attended to the chambers or rooms.  Dusted, swept, made beds, warmed beds, took care of fires, attended dressing room, and cared for windows.

Housemaids: also know as “spider brushers” from all the dusting they did.  They mended garments, made beds, opened windows, tidied, served tea (they were the ones to sell it) washed windows and stairs, polished fireplace fixtures and door looks, and emptied chamber pots.

Nurserymaids:  Wet nurses, cared for children

Kitchenmaids: Assisted in kitchen activities.  Through experience, she might become an assistant cook.

Kitchen Maid – Johannes Vermeer – 1658

Maids of all work:   These maids were employed in even the most impoverished families.

Scullery maids:  Lowest of all the servants and typically very young, she assisted the kitchen maids.  She also scoured pots, stoves, pans; cleaned vegetables, scrubbed scales off fish, and plucked poultry; provided hot water to the house, lit fires to heat water; cleaned away garbage and debris on floors.  She might have cleaned and emptied chamber pots and/or also assisted in watching the cooking of food.  She would never touch any luxuries like china or glass.

Restoration Housewives and Heroines

These articles and video series are easy to read/watch and give insight into the lives of English women during the restoration era and how similar they are to our lives today.  Aphra Behn and other exploratory women are detailed as well the lives and customs of common women, wives, prostitutes and the wealthy.
This is research that  Nina, our costume designer, found and thought that all of you could benefit from it as well.

An article on the series, comparing 17th century women to women of today.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/9279897/Restoration-housewives-and-heroines.html

Below a episode from the BBC series “Harlots,Housewives, and Heroines at work and play” It explores the day to day lives of 17th century women in London as well as the lives of some of the extraordinary women of the time.

Spain in the 17th Century

Spain in the Seventeenth Century

POPULATION
1600 – 8.1 million (9.2 including Portugal)
1700 – 7.5 million

MONARCHS
Philip III (1598-1621)
Philip IV (1621-1665)
Charles II (1665-1700)

KEY EVENTS
1609 – 12 Years Truce between Spain and the Dutch
1609 – Expulsion of the Moriscos
1640 – Catalan Revolt & Revolt of Portugal
1665 – Battle of Villaviciosa
1679 – Death of Don John

CULTURE
Literature
1605-15 – Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote
Lope de Vega (1562-1635)
Pedro Calderón de la Barca (1600-1681)

The Spanish crown ruled an empire that included modern Portugal (to 1640) and Belgium, much of the Italian peninsula, Mexico, and large portions of South America and the Caribbean. During the seventeenth century Spain was dogged by economic problems, as were her Mediterranean possessions, Milan and Naples. Slow communications and a ponderous bureaucracy made it hard for a Spanish monarch effectively to harness the resources of his far-flung empire. Much of the duty which the Spanish kings levied on the silver mined in South America (their most ready source of hard cash) had been spent in an unsuccessful attempt to end the Dutch Revolt.

The Spanish crown finally acknowledged Dutch independence in 1648, but silver imports had already begun to decline from the 1620s. During the seventeenth century, Spanish power declined relative to that of France and England. Portugal revolted in 1640, and Spain was forced to recognize its independence in 1668. Spain was weakened further under the ineffective government of the inbred, physically feeble, mentally-defective Charles II. Despite all its social problems, art and literature flourished in seventeenth-century Spain. The art of Velasquez and Murillo, the prose of Miguel de Cervantes and the dramas of Pedro Calderón de la Barca have few equals.

Religion in the 17th Century

The 17th century began a rise in conflict over Religion especially in England.  People were expected to belong to the Church of England, yet there were a great amount of Roman Catholics too.  Those who did not below to the Church were severely frowned upon including Roman Catholics, Jews and Gypsies.  England was primarily Anglican during this time, Spain was primarily Roman Catholic and Italy was primarily Roman Catholic.

To learn more about religion in the 17th century refer to the links below:

Overview of religion in 17th century England
http://www.localhistories.org/17thcenturyreligion.html

Roman Catholic Beliefs
http://christianity.about.com/od/denominations/a/catholicdenom.htm

Anglican Beliefs
http://anglicansonline.org/resources/essays/whalon/WhatIsAnglicanism.html

Primary sources that represent women’s view on religion and its importance to their lives.  17th-century-religion-and-women

The World in 1650

The 17th century in Europe is divided into two subsections: Reformation, Restoration and Enlightenment.  At the beginning of the century, wars broke out both civilly and internationally with aims to change monarchical power as well as religious and social reform.  The Enlightenment sparked creative, technological and political innovations in light of new social and political reform.

1 age of growing religious conflict ca. 1500-1618
2 Thirty Years’ War ca. 1618-1648
3 Early Enlightenment ca. 1648-1715
4 Late Enlightenment ca. 1715-1800
5 English Revolution ca. 1640-60
6 French Revolution ca. 1789-99

To find out more refer to these short articles and timelines of Early Modern Europe (Reformation and Enlightenment):
http://www.essential-humanities.net/western-history/early-modern-europe/#timeline

 

About Aphra Behn

“All I ask, is the privilege for my masculine part the poet in me…If I must not, because of my sex, have this freedom…I lay down my quill and you shall hear no more of me. “- Aphra Behn  

Aphra Johnson was born near Canterbury in 1640, and baptised on 14 December of that year. She is thought to have spent some of her youth in Dutch Guiana in the West Indies. In 1664, she married Johan Behn a merchant of Dutch or German parentage, but the marriage is not thought to have lasted very long. She is known to have acted as a British spy in Antwerp in 1666. Imprisonment for debt led her to write for an income.

Behn wrote a series of successful plays. Her first, ‘The Forc’d Marriage’ was produced in 1671. ‘The Rover’ (1681), her most successful, was produced in two parts and included in its cast Nell Gwyn, mistress of Charles II. Among Behn’s sources was the Italian commedia dell’arte (improvised comedy), which she used in her farce ‘The Emperor of the Moon’ (1687), forerunner of the modern-day pantomime.

Behn’s novel ‘Oroonoko’ B(1688) was the story of an enslaved African prince and is now considered a foundation stone in the development of the English novel. As well as plays and prose Behn wrote poetry and translated works from French and Latin. In her time she was a celebrity, unusual for her independence as a professional writer and her concern for equality between the sexes.

Behn died on 16 April 1689 and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

BBC 

Additional Information 

Video Lectures:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=utPKWzTRC7I

Articles about Behn 

http://www.luminarium.org/eightlit/behn/behnbio.htm
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/behnaphra/a/Aphra-Behn.htm

Other Works by Behn 

Works of Aphra Behn part 1 including: MEMOIRS OF APHRA BEHN, THE ROVER(original version), THE DUTCH LOVER, and THE ROUNDHEADS, or, THE GOOD OLD CLAUSE.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21339/21339-h/21339-h.htm

Works of Aphra Behn part 2 including: ABDELAZER or THE MOOR’S REVENGE, THE YOUNG KING or THE MISTAKE, THE CITY HEIRESS or SIR TIMOTHY TREAT-ALL, THE FEIGN’D CURTEZANS or A NIGHT’S INTRIGUE NOTES
http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/8885/pg8885.html

Works of Aphra Behn part 3 including: THE TOWN-FOP; OR, SIR TIMOTHY TAWDREY THE FALSE COUNT THE LUCKY CHANCE, AN ALDERMAN’S BARGAIN THE FORC’D MARRIAGE, THE JEALOUS BRIDEGROOM THE EMPEROR OF THE MOON NOTES
http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/10039/pg10039-images.html

Works of Aphra Behn part 4 including: SIR PATIENT FANCY, THE AMOROUS PRINCE, THE WIDOW RANTER, THE YOUNGER BROTHER OR THE AMOROUS JILT
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/27273/27273-h/27273-h.htm

Works of Aphra Behn part 5 including: THE ADVENTURE OF THE BLACK LADY, THE COURT OF THE KING OF BANTAM, THE UNFORTUNATE HAPPY LADY: A TRUE HISTORY, THE FAIR JILT, OROONOKO; OR, THE ROYAL SLAVE, AGNES DE CASTRO, THE HISTORY OF THE NUN; OR, THE FAIR VOW-BREAKER, THE NUN; OR, THE PERJUR’D BEAUTY, THE LUCKY MISTAKE, THE UNFORTUNATE BRIDE; OR, THE BLIND LADY A BEAUTY, THE DUMB VIRGIN; OR, THE FORCE OF IMAGINATION,  THE WANDERING BEAUTY, THE UNHAPPY MISTAKE; OR, THE IMPIOUS VOW PUNISH’D
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/29854/29854-h/29854-h.htm

Works of Aphra Behn part 6 including: THE LOVER’S WATCH, POEMS UPON SEVERAL OCCASIONS (1684), A VOYAGE TO THE ISLE OF LOVE, LYCIDUS; OR, THE LOVER IN FASHION (1688), POEMS APPENDED TO LYCIDUS, WESTMINSTER DROLLERY (1671), MISCELLANY (1685), GILDON’S MISCELLANY (1692), GILDON’S CHORUS POETARUM (1694) , MUSES MERCURY (1707) , FAMILIAR LETTERS (1718), PROLOGUE TO ROMULUS, EPILOGUE TO ROMULUS, SATYR ON DRYDEN, PROLOGUE TO VALENTINIAN, TO HENRY HIGDEN, ON THE DEATH OF E. WALLER, A PINDARIC POEM TO DR. BURNET
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/45777/45777-h/45777-h.htm